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托福阅读话题分类汇总

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发表于 2012-11-30 10:10:22 |显示全部楼层
托福阅读主要话题分类汇总
一、 生命科学类
时间
涉及话题
核心词汇
1、昆虫
01-10
蚂蚁生存5000万年的原因
Predatory eusocial insect/ predator/specialization/cooperation/forage for food/defend the nest/nest intruder/larva/labor category/caste/termite /solitary ant
02-05
蚂蚁信息素
Pheromones(chemical signals)/fire ant/aggregation/solitary ant/colony odor/identify intruder/colony integrity/alarm pheromone/scurry/mark its trails/ ergate /soldier/queen ant
03-10
蚂蚁间交流
Forage/lay a trail/migration/stinger to/trail pheromone/leafcutter/evaporate pheromone/receptor/antenna
06-06-24
06-12-03
蜜蜂沟通
Honey bee/Worker bee/Social/Scout/Scent/Pollen dance
00-10-3
蝴蝶多样性
Variety / Category / Diversity
Richness / Distribution
Tropical and temperate regions
2、鸟类
02-10
始祖鸟
Flying vertebrate/reptile/pterosaur/lizard/fossile/wingspan/ancestor/quarry/link between dinosaur and bird
00-01
人工孵化
Aviculturist/incubation/parrot/temperature/humidity/gradient/hatch/evaporate/artificial incubation/laboratory condition/viability/survivability/insulator
01-05
鸟类换毛
Molt / Feather / Wear out
Outermost / Innermost
01-08
鸟类欺骗战术
Deception strategy/ground-nesting/trick/predator/several ploy/emit/mimic/incubate/broken-wing display/flop
03-01
鸟类在岩壁上筑巢
Nesting on cliff/mate/lay/rear/raven/predator
/relaxation of the defence /gull/kittiwake
07-1-13
鸟类迁徙
Migrate/Predict/Artificial sun/Real sun/Guide/Star/Inner clock
06-12-8
鸟的鸣叫
Twitter/Parents/Predator/Higher frequency/Gene
3、水生动物
03-01
浮游生物繁盛期与石油
Mesozoic ear/Cretaceous period/plankton/float/precipitate/silica/
Calcium carbonate/sediment/deposit/accumulate/remain/calcium carbonate-secreting/amass/prolific/bury/petroleum
05-01
北美雀鳝
Wetland region/needlelike teeth/snout/slender/alligator gar/adept/fast sideways snap/jaw/stealthy approach/marsh/aquatic habitat/prehistoric/swimming bladder
06-7-15
07-3-23
鳟鱼
Predator/Gravel/Celsius degree/Survival environment
07-8-25
鱼类体液渗透平衡
Body fluid/Gill/Permeate/Balance/Solute/Urine
05-12-17
海豚的智慧
Dolphin/Intellective
4、动物习性
02-10-3
动物的意识与认知能力
Animal behaviorist/anticipate/coordinate/consciousness/honeybee/nectar/figure-eight pattern/hive/intelligence/cognition/otter/rudimentary tool/chimpanzee/summing ability
04-5-1
动物哺育下一代
Calve/marsupial/ spiny anteater/placental mammal/offspring/descendant/reptile/crocodile/caterpillar/paralyze/venom/store/larva/parental care/forage/shield/survive
04-8-5
动物使用工具
Primate/chimpanzee/ants and termites/anvil/hammer/modify/twig/strip/probe hole/woodpecker finch/cactus spine/prey/beak /anemone/octopus/forest-dwelling primate/intruder
07-03-04
动物保温机制
Thermoregulation/Blubber/Bladder/Metabolic
06-06-09
生物钟规律
Biological clock/Bat/Nightly animal
06-10-18
动物拟态行为
Mimesis/Camouflage/Predator
06-10-28
食草动物
摄食行为
Vegetarian/Stern/Leaves/Ruminate
06-10-15
蝙蝠和寄生虫
Bat/Gregarious/Parasite/Beneficial
06-09-15
动物捕食最优化
Predator/Prey/Optimize
5、灭绝与进化
02-01
史前人类活动导致巨型动物灭绝
Subsist/hunter/gatherer/Pleistocene epoch/paleontologist/prehistoric/mass extinction/overhunting/mammoth/giant ground sloth/giant bison/direct competition/demise/carnivore/predator/survive
02-08
物种灭绝
Extinct/perish/ecological change/temperature/demise/dinosaur/plankton in the ocean/periodic extinction/intersection/Earth’s orbit/comet/eliminate/adapt/evolutionary
06-12-16
动物体型进化
Body size/Limit/Reproduce/Special adaptation
07-01-27
物种适应性
Biological diversity/ecosystem/fragility/fringe marine ecosystem/habitat destruction/irreversible/mass extinction/physical event/climatic/cosmic/die out/demolish/biological devastation/adaptation
6、植物
05-08
菌类
Fungi/mold/yeast/mushroom/chlorophyll/synthesize/carbohydrate/fungal cell/hyphae/enzyme/cellulose/cellulose-destroying/timber/decomposition/organic matter/antibiotics/penicillin
04-01
苔藓
Lichen/hardiest/framework/fungus/alga/stagnant/photosynthese/dormant/dew/ultraviolet ray/stain/lichen colony /offspring/encounter/ stalk-like bud
02-01
北美郁金香
Tulip/Holland/cultivation/tenuous line/colonize/carnation/settler/tulip bulb/grumble/tulip entrepreneur/salesperson/ nostalgic longing/homesick
08-01-05
植物的积极防御和消极防御
Symbiotic specy/mechanism/performed/passive/inducible/active/toxic/deterrent/immune system/vertebrate
7、动植物关系
01-05
为何树冠内小动物少
Canopy/twig/mammal/warm blooded/gap/tree crown
02-09
松鼠与橡树
Naturalist/ecologist/squirrel/acorn/disperse/scurry/pesky seed predator/regeneration/dispersal/seed maturity/germination/spread/reproduce/pry off/discard/litter
07-06-24
动植物间的互利与共生
Symbiosis/Pollination/Fungus/Symbiotic
8、其他生命
03-08
生命起源
Putrefy/microscopically/bacteria/microorganism/spontaneous generation/hypothetical/chemist/microbiologist/Pasteur/guncotton filter/alcohol/ether/solid particle/microscope slide/mold/singe-celled/microbial cell/postulate/deposit/glass flask/teem with/proponent/swan-neck flask/sterilize
05-08
菌类
Fungi/mold/yeast/mushroom/chlorophyll/synthesize/carbohydrate/fungal cell/hyphae/enzyme/cellulose/cellulose-destroying/timber/decomposition/organic matter/antibiotics/penicillin
9、生物学原理
07-01-13
07-01-27
物种适应性
Biological diversity/Ecosystem/Fragility/Habitat destruction/mass extinction/Climatic/Biological devastation/Adaptation
07-03-04
物种分类方法
Monad/Fungus/Algae
二、 欧美历史类
1、城市历史
00-01
费城
Agricultural hinterland / Colonial city / Occasional trade / Eradicate / Prosper / Economic and demographic growth
01-08
洛杉矶
Inhabitant / Migrant / Irrigation / Aqueduct / Decentralized / Landscape / Suburb / Urban
06-06-16
伦敦
Roman conquest of Britain / Capital of the world / Metropolitan area / Multi-cultural / Financial exports
06-10-15
城市化
Industrialization / Agricultural revolution / Transportation
Construction / Urbanization / Skyscraper
2、农业历史
03-8-2
农民
Agrarian movement / Morality / Infrastructure / Canal
Frontier land / Industrialization / Urbanization
04-8-4
美国水利建设
Drought / Dam / Reservoir / Hydroelectric power / Irrigation
07-01-13
新英格兰农业发展
Bean / Squash / Pumpkin / Soil fertility / Exploitative
Sustainable
07-12-08
水稻种植
Moisture / Flourish / Plow / Transplant
3、原住民及其文明
05-05
移民与原住民融合
Scandinavian / Autonomy / Gender division / Cultivation
Horticulture / Log cabin / Frontier
04-05
美国东南部居民
Cultivate / Louisiana / Alabama / Georgia / Florida
Rocky Mountain / Mississippian / descendant
07-10-28
印第安人
Gender difference / Spiritual / Preserve / Collision
Representative
06-12-01
印加文明
Inca Empire / Pre-Columbian America / Highland
Reorganization / Cult / Peru
4、行业历史
00-10
工作时间变化
Anthropologist / Pre-industrial society / Industrial Revolution
Depression years of the 1930’s / Adjustment
01-01
北美殖民地时期工匠
Artisan / Carpenter / Weaver / Fabricate
Artificial light / Shortcut
04-08
华盛顿早期报纸
Event / Neutral in politics / Religious / Territory
Graphic / Illustration / Opinion / Sensationalism
02-10
美国报纸采用气象图
Weather map / Publisher / Distributor / Inaugurate
Cloud-cover photos / Pictorial
06-10-15
经济发展史
Economic phenomena / Statistic methods
Demographic history
06-12-16
工具机械化生产
Mechanization / Physical requirements
Manual labor / Automation / Steam powered lathe
5、 经济发展与工业革命
06-03-03
07-12-10
工业革命
Agriculture / Manufacturing / Transportation / Industrialization
manual labor-based economy / Steam power
01-05
农业经济转向工业经济
Artisan / Industrialization / capital-intensive
labor-intensive / raw material / specialization
6、历史事件
06-11-05
人类发现美洲大陆
Pre-Columbian / Post-Columbian / Indigenous peoples
Native Americans / Ancient ruins  / Evidence
07-01-19
英美代表制
Colony / Representative community
Heritage / Election rights / mandate
7、其他文明及其历史
06-11-18
08-03-02
中东地区矿产与文明发展
Middle-Ease Region / Ore / Mineral /
Apprentice / Centralization / Prosperous
07-04-21
斯巴达与雅典社会对比
Ancient Greece / Sparta / Athens / Assembly
Obedience and war / Warriors / Birthplace of democracy
07-02-03
07-07-07
08-04-26
中国
Centralization / The Yellow River floods
Silt / Drought / Great Wall / Military Demand / Authorize
08-01-19
08-03-29
日本
Origination / Southeast Asia / Korea influence
Distinct Characteristics / Archeology discovery
三、 自然科学类
1、土壤
00-01
土壤构成(老)
Particles / Clay / Sediment / Sieve
05-05
08-03-08
微量元素
Minerals / Organic farming / Chemical fertilizer / Vitamin
03-08
土壤区
Soil-region / Humid / Arid / Annual precipitation / Acidic /Alkaline
08-3-23
土壤构成(新)
Mechanic formation / Biochemical formation
Chemical formation / Acid rain
2、岩石
01-05
岩石与全球冰河期
Varve / Layer / Deposit / Glacial
02-05
岩石
Deposit of clay / Elements / Compounds / Oxides silica
05-05
岩石年代鉴定
Hardness of the rock / Mudstone / Sediment
06-12-1
矿石
Mineral / Abundant mineral  / Scarce mineral
3、冰川
01-10
冰川形成
Glacier / Snowflack / Cementation / Crystallization / Temperate glacier
06-2-3
绿色冰川
Illusion / Mineral / Organic compound / The Arctic Circle
4、海洋
01-01
海洋保护区
Marine sanctuaries Program / Sanctuary status / Habitat degradation / Overexploitation
05-08
19世纪海洋学
Oceanography / Map of seabed / Ocean current
06-03-17
06-10-22
海水正蓝
Reflective / Penetrate / Ripple / Particles
07-02-03
08-02-03
海洋能源
Wave energy / generator / Tidal energy / mill grains
Thermal energy / power plant
5、地理现象
04-05
加州死亡谷
Death Valley / chemically corrosive nature / Wedge / Evaporation / Shatter
07-01-14
上升地形
Terrain / Uplift / Crust / Pressure
06-10-21
07-09-21
08-1-13
08-3-29
火山喷发
Volcano eruption monitoring / Dormant / Seismic activity / Thermal monitoring  / Infrared radiometry / Gas emission
07-01-19
07-07-07
城市热岛效应
High urban temperatures / Minimize evaporation / Trap heat air / Waste heat
6、能源
06-10-08
石油
Formation / Compression / Ancient organic materials / Exploitation / Oil field
06-11-05
08-01-19
天然气
Low density / Compressible / Pollution
Greenhouse effect
7、地球
02-08
热量转换
Latitude / Equator / semi-tropical / temperate zone / frigid zone / ocean current / latent heat
04-01
地球大气
Atmosphere / Hydrogen / Carbon dioxide / Oxygen / Volcano eruption
06-11-03
天气预测
Weather forecast / Computer model / Accuracy / Marginal effect
Observation
06-12-10
07-01-19
07-04-29
07-09-08
08-03-15
板块学说
Continental drift
Plate tectonic theory
Heat energy / Continental margins
8、其他天体
02-01
彗星
Comet / Nucleus / Halley’s comet / Dust particle
02-08
月球
Terrain / Maria / Terrace / Crater
01-04
木星
Jupiter / Atmosphere / Great red spot / Hurricane /
Primeval heat
05-01
金星大气
Venus / Carbon dioxide / Nitrogen / surface pressure / sulfuric acid
06-04-28
08-03-02
两类行星
Terrestrial planet / Jovian planet / Density
Atmosphere escape velocity

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